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Cholera is also known as Asiatic orepidemic cholera. This is an infectious disease caused by enterotoxin. By eating food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio- cholera, this disease can be transmitted to humans. The aquatic environments can be a big source for this type of bacteria and can result in infectious diseases in humans.

Vibrio Cholerae produces cholera toxin which is responsible for the disease. Studies have shown that almost one million v.cholerae is required to induce cholera to one person. But it may vary according to the health conditions of an individual too. It can affect the small intestine lining and can be a cause for excessive diarrhea. A healthy person’s blood pressure may drop suddenly because of this disease to hyposensitive levels. This is a very fatal disease and if proper medical treatment is not given, the patient may die with in three hours of infection. The symptom can range from liquid stool to a shock. Things can happen within half a day’s time. Africa is the most cholera affected continent.

An oral rehydration therapy is the most common way of treating cholera. A very rapid and apt replacement of water and electrolytes is crucial in the scenario. The ORT is highly efficient. In some situations, commercial ORT packs are difficult to be obtained. In those cases homemade solutions with water, sugar and baking soda can do the job. Antibiotica can shorten the course of the disease. It even can reduce the symptoms too. Some of the effective antibiotics used are cotrimoxazole, erythromycin,doxycycline,and  chloramphenicol. If treated properly, the risk of cholera decreases very much. But the identification and proper care remains crucial.

The prevention of cholera is equally important or more important. There are a lot of straight forward methods to prevent cholera. Proper sanitation practices are very important in this matter. Nowadays, cholera is drastically reduced in the developed nations as the sanitation and water management systems have become highly efficient. Sterilization is also very important. Proper disposal of the infected fecal waste water is also important. All the materials that come in contact with the patient should be sterilized properly to prevent the disease. The hand that touches the patients also should be cleaned thoroughly. Spreading of the disease can be stopped through proper community health care system. Proper water management practices can be adopted at sewages etc to prevent the disease. Boiling and chlorination are some effective methods to decontaminate water and these processes should be communicated to public to stop spreading the disease. Cloth filters etc also can be very effective in preventing it.

In some countries, a cholera vaccine is also available. But it is not allowed in several countries. In most of the countries it remains as a seasonal disease as it occurs mainly during rainy season. Very recent studies show a relation of cholera with the blood type of the person. Type O blood is most susceptible to cholera and AB type is the most resistant to it. A weakened immune system may contribute to increased susceptibility.

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